Complete CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2024-25

The CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2025 was released in the first week of April 2024 which is comprised in a way that it contains fundamental concepts and examples that explore how the environment and humans interact on different scales—local, regional, national, and international. CBSE recommends the NCERT Class 12 Geography Textbook Book for this purpose which is in accordance with the latest CBSE Geography Syllabus of Class 12 2024-25. The NCERT Books recommended by CBSE are

1. Fundamentals of Human Geography

2. India- People and Economy

While the NCERT Book “Fundamentals of Human Geography,” cover the CBSE Geography syllabus into three units and eight chapters.  The book “India People and Economy” covers the syllabus into 5 units and has a total of 9 chapters. 


CBSE Geography Class 12 Syllabus 2024-25 

Book 1 – (Fundamentals of Human Geography)





Human Geography



The World Population Density Distribution and Growth


Human Development


Primary Activities 


Secondary Activities

Tertiary and Quaternary Activities

Transport, Communication and Trade

International Trade

Map Work (Based on the identification of features on World Political Map)


Book 2 – (India People and Economy)


Population Distribution Density Growth and Composition



Human Settlement



Land Resources and Agriculture



Water Resources 


Mineral And Energy Resources


Planning and Sustainable Development in the Indian Context


Transport and Communication



International Trade


Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems



Map Work (Based on Marking and labelling on a political Map of India)


Geography Practical-II


Data-its source and Compilation



Data Processing


Graphical Representation of Data



Spatial Information Technology


Practical Record Book and Viva Voce






CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2024-25

The CBSE Class 12 Geography syllabus for the academic year 2024–2025 is particularly beneficial for students aspiring to pursue careers in geography, environmental science, or related fields. Familiarizing oneself with the syllabus, including the marking scheme, is important for students as it provides a thorough breakdown of how marks are distributed across different chapters and will also help students to effectively plan their study strategies and focus on areas that carry greater weightage in examinations.

CBSE Class 12 Geography Practical Syllabus: Map Work

The practical will come from the above-prescribed NCERT Class 12 geography Textbook which is as follows: 

Book 1 – (Fundamentals of Human Geography)


The following practicals will come from the chapters mentioned in Book 2


Chapter-4 Primary Activities

  1. Areas of subsistence gathering (Fig 4.2)  

  2. Major areas of nomadic herding of the world (4.4) 

  3. Major areas of commercial livestock rearing (4.6)  

  4. Major areas of extensive commercial grain farming (4.12)  

  5. Major areas of mixed farming in the World (4.14)

Chapter-7 Transport, Communication and Trade

  1. Terminal Stations of Transcontinental Railways– Trans-Siberian, Trans Canadian, Trans-Australian Railways 

  2. Major Sea Ports 

  • Europe: North Cape, London, Hamburg  

  • North America: Vancouver, San Francisco, New Orleans  

  • South America: Rio De Janeiro, Colon, Valparaiso  

  • Africa: Suez and Cape Town  

  • Asia: Yokohama, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Aden, Karachi, Kolkata  

  • Australia: Perth, Sydney, Melbourne 

  1. Major Airports:

  • Asia: Tokyo, Beijing, Mumbai, Jeddah, Aden  

  • Africa: Johannesburg & Nairobi  

  • Europe: Moscow, London, Paris, Berlin and Rome  

  • North America: Chicago, New Orleans, Mexico City  

  • South America: Buenos Aires, Santiago  

  • Australia: Darwin and Wellington 

  1. Inland Waterways

  • Suez Canal, Panama Canal, Rhine Waterways, and St. Lawrence Seaways

Book 2 – (India People and Economy)


The following practicals will come from the chapters mentioned in Book 2


Chapter-1 Population Distribution Density Growth and Composition

State with highest population density & state with lowest population density (2011) 

Chapter 3 Land Resources and Agriculture

Leading producing states of the following crops: (a) Rice (b) Wheat (c) Cotton (d) Jute (e) Sugarcane (f) Tea and (g) Coffee

Chapter 5 Mineral And Energy Resources

  • Iron-ore mines: Mayurbhanj, Bailadila, Ratnagiri, Bellary  

  • Manganese mines: Balaghat, Shimoga  

  • Copper mines: Hazaribagh, Singhbhum, Khetari  

  • Bauxite mines: Katni, Bilaspur and Koraput  

  • Coal mines: Jharia, Bokaro, Raniganj, Neyveli  

  • Oil Refineries: Mathura, Jamnager, Barauni 

Chapter-8 International Trade

Mark and label the major sea ports and airports on an outline map of India.  

  • Major Sea Ports: Kandla, Mumbai, Marmagao, Kochi, Mangalore, Tuticorin, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, Haldia  

  • International Airports: Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Delhi, Amritsar, Thiruvananthapuram & Hyderabad.

How to Prepare for CBSE Class 12 Geography Paper

CBSE Class 12 Geography paper preparation requires a strategic approach and a thorough understanding of the latest syllabus. Here are some tips that you can use to prepare for the Geography paper for CBSE Class 12 Board Exam.

  • Start with, downloading the official syllabus of CBSE Geography the syllabus to create your study schedule. 

  • Refer only to the NCERT textbook “Fundamentals of Human Geography” and “India- People and Economy” as prescribed by CBSE. 

  • Practice with previous years’ question papers and take mock tests to familiarize yourself with the exam pattern. 

  • Learn with the help of visual aids like maps to understand geographical concepts better. 

  • Stay updated with geography-related current affairs and ask for help if needed. 

  • Keep a consistent study routine, break the syllabus into smaller parts, and revise regularly. 


Students who are enrolled in the CBSE academic session of 2024-25 are advised to visit the official website of CBSE to download the syllabus and start preparing for the upcoming board exam.


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